Being painted on the house, the number would arouse massive suspicion; he who numbers houses will come with malicious intent. Not at all, recent studies come to the result that it was written down at the beginning of the eighteenth century by the orientalist Antoine Galland, relying on the account of a maronite monk, an account he embroidered. There is evidence that this numbering is made to last. The recruitment regulations of mention the house numbers and order their introduction in those cities where it has not yet happened Only the city of Berlin remains without numbers until the beginning of the nineteenth century.
To find an address one has to know the street name, the number of the block and the number of the house in the block The numbers seem to have been accepted in Madrid. Anyway the authorities hesitated, perhaps because they feared too much resistance In , the houses in the county of Lippe are numbered with the aim to address the real estate without being dependent on using the changeable house name In the same year house numbers are ordered in Further Austria 34 ; one year later, in the billeting of soldiers is the reason why house numbering is introduced in French cities; Paris is not affected as there exist barracks; houses are numbered only in the new streets around the covered grain market erected in One year later follows Mainz.
The letters A—F are assigned to the six quarters of the city, the houses of every quarter are numbered consecutively; the letter of every section and the house number e.
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The electoral palace, office buildings, barracks and back buildings without exit to the street are not numbered; new buildings can be numbered by using fractions e. To make his street directory more efficient, Kreenfelt needs a system of homes addressing; at first he uses the numbers of the street lamps, but finally he has the idea to introduce numbering by himself.
An engineer named Voch is commissioned which this work.
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In Geneva, houses are numbered in 40 , in Austrian dominated Milano 41 and in Hungary in Emperor Joseph ii at first is quite confident that the Hungarian nobility will not offer resistance. Worse the less, the Estates openly oppose the census and its commissars. Some of the officials will be beaten up, in the district of Vezprim one officer is murdered, another is splashed with water and has to promise not to set foot on this district ever again In Transylvania the situation is completely different.
The Wallachians — the Rumanian peasants — revolt, because they expect the end of manorial oppression thanks to the conscription; they believe that conscription means immediate incorporation in military service and therefore the end of the detested service for their lords. The rebels are convinced to act in agreement with Joseph ii , but are put down They start on November 1 st ; the final results are presented on April 4 th , one year after Joseph ii originally expected the end of the census Like in the hereditary lands, the Hungarian houses are numbered with black colour; the number should be high around three inches, being painted beside or above the house door In January , the Emperor has to revoke the new recruiting system, which also affects the house numbers.
During playing military music and firing artillery, in a sort of ceremony they are removed from the houses The just established 48 city districts — called sections — are numbered consecutively, so the numbers pass through the city without plan and there are streets where houses have the same number, because the streets cross several districts The French Revolution is of Europe-wide importance also concerning house numbering; the revolutionary wars will introduce this technology in many German, Swiss 52 and Dutch 53 cities, e.
Quite famous is the often quoted anecdote of Cologne to explain how the brand name was created for Eau de Cologne. At the Prussian capital of Berlin house numbering is proposed later. Johann Philipp Eisenberg, president of police, proposes the consecutive numbering of the whole city The Prussian king rejects this method; in he orders that the numbering has to be executed by streets.
Finally this method is chosen, numbering starts on the right side of the more busy or important part of the street, proceeds on this side until the end of the road and then passes on the left side of the street The corresponding order, dated with September 24 th , requires the numbers attached with black colour made out of bone coal and oil on a white rectangle painted on the houses.
Simultaneously street names are written on the houses and a new cadastre of the Venice Sestieres is executed Especially it would be intriguing to investigate when house numbering appears in colonial cities as for example in Latin America, because it is possible that numbering — as the fingerprint, another technology of control — first was used in the colonies and later was transferred from periphery to centre It can be the billeting of soldiers, recruiting, the administration of tributes and taxes, the fight against beggars or fire insurance But one argument seems not to be used by officials.
So what nowadays has become a technology of orientation nobody would call into question is in its beginning intended to be a manifest technology of policing people; the officials do not hide this and therefore sometimes are confronted with resistance.
It seems that most often government authorities initiate numbering, although there are exceptions — the case of Paris and some cities in the usa , where private editors of town directories start house numbering 63 ; in the nineteenth century the task of house numbering usually shifts to the town councils. Provisionally it can be said that house numbering was one instrument — among others as for example the census, ordnance surveyance and land registers — to create the modern state. Following James C. In the case of Vienna there are examples that soon after their introduction people used the house numbers to address letters or to publish their address in newspaper ads The numbering of whole villages, as applied for example in the Habsburg Monarchy.
The numbering of quarters, with a letter being used to symbolize the corresponding city quarter Mainz, Augsburg, Nuremberg. The numbering by block of houses Madrid, Mannheim. The numbering by street using the so called clockwise or horseshoe scheme. The houses on one side of the street are numbered with odd numbers, the houses on the other side with even numbers.
The block decimal system mainly used in the usa, where numbers are reserved for the houses of every block of houses; this system is also called Philadelphia system because it was first used in Philadelphia Its primary aim was to prepare the introduction of a new military recruitment system, covering, above all, Christian men fit for service in the army. But since the survey was also to serve the purposes of demographic policies, both female and Jewish souls were accounted for, as well, albeit in lesser detail.
Thus, commissions comprised of both civilian and military staff toured villages and towns, proceeding from house to house and listing the individuals into reprinted sheets The number was denoted as a house number also by containing letters — figures alone were not considered to be sufficient as they might have been mistaken for a year-date. Those houses had to be numbered separately and marked with Roman , or Latin, instead of German indo-arabic figures.
This once again brought to the fore the sharp dividing line that was drawn between the so-called Christian and the Jewish souls — the mark Jews living in Prague were obliged to wear this dress code was abolished only in was attached to their houses, as well Thus, the order of numbers reflected the route the commissioners took passing through a certain place. The system was only insufficiently prepared to cover changes.
When a new house is built in a village, it gets the figure that follows the number of the last house being numbered, even when it stands not near to it. If two houses are merged, one number disappears. The numbers that should guarantee order are messed up. The order that should guarantee orientation in space slightly becomes an order of time, that means: the smaller the house number, the older the house, what even today is the case in some tiny Austrian villages. This statement seems to be valid also for the world of houses. One apparent sign for this is the often executed renumbering — up to five times in some Viennese suburbs —, a problem many local historians are confronted with, who have to consult complicated concordance tables to trace a certain house.
In , a first renumbering has to be executed and again in It was numbered with conscription number In , it was demolished; on its place architect Peter Mollner erected four new houses. One of them kept the old number — —, the three others got the until then not used numbers , and Finally, these houses got after new conscription or land register numbers, to In this way finding an address in a big city could become a difficult, time-consuming task, even if one knew the name of the street, because two houses standing side by side not necessarily were numbered with figures following each other.
In Vienna for example, it was decreed by resolution of the city council on May 2 nd Here the new house numbers are called police numbers to distinguish them from the fire cadastre or assurance numbers that were introduced in connection with the fire assurance. The Regulation concerning the police numbering of the houses is dated February 11 th and settles the shape of the new numbers. The assurance numbers are kept, but can be transferred in the entrance of the house; until today they can be found being fixed on the inside of the doors A statement published in a travelogue by usa geographer John Pinkerton suggests a different land of origin.
Pinkerton travelled to Napoleonic Paris at the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the revolutionary, section wise numbering was still used and made orientation very difficult. Pinkerton knew an alternative:. In the following years this system was used in many other us cities, and then was introduced in Paris The terminological work of the linguist Heike Wiese gives an answer to this question.
Wiese distinguishes three kinds of number assignments. In this case numbers are used as proper names, as is the case for example with bus or tramway numbers, house numbers or telephone numbers.
So numbers can be assigned to objects for three purposes. First to determine the cardinality of sets, second to determine the ranks of objects in a sequence and third to determine the identity of objects in a set; there are cardinal, ordinal and nominal number assignments In the case of the house numbering per village or the clockwise street numbering system it is possible to mix the nominal number assignment with the cardinal number assignments.
Here the number being assigned to the last numbered house equals the cardinality of all houses in the village or the street, as was for example the case in the Habsburg Monarchy. Here the census takers could compile lists in that the names of the villages and next to it the last house number of the corresponding village were registered. By doing so it was possible to state that during the census of for example in Bohemia there were According to his Tableau de Paris everyone wanted to have the number one in his or her street, all wanted to resemble Caesar, nobody wanted to be number two in Rome; if a noble entrance gate would be numbered after a common workshop this would implies a pinch of equality to be watched out for The owner was arrested and the house completely demolished.
The house number was taken away and fixed on a stake being hammered into the position of the former house. The authorities finally decided that when a new house was built one should be cautious about fixing the number on the house instead of the stake So the house number is more resistant than the house that the number is fixed.
It survives the demolition of the house having been populated with dissolute people and waits for the new house to be erected and to be addressed by the number. The emptied space the address refers to seem to require a new building.
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Using this system the houses were not counted any longer but were only addressed, being given the fact that the highest house number of a street numbered in this manner did not need to equal the number of houses of this street. This system will also make it easier to assign numbers to an empty space destinated to new buildings — analogous to the indo-arabic place value system based on the Zero So the history and the succession of the different types of house numbering can be regarded as a process of rejecting the cardinal number assignment and of strengthening the nominal number assignment aspect while maintaining the secondary ordinal aspect.
But sometimes it can be the other way round, which was true for the more recent history of Austria.
This embassy was first accommodated in a tent, then in a container, and became a meeting place of the resistance against the unwanted government; the weekly demonstrations — taking place every Thursday — started here. Sometimes it can be a desired good. So technologies of control and surveillance have a chance to gain acceptance, when the concerned citizens can appropriate them for their own purposes.
Benjamin , Walter, Das Passagen-Werk. In addition, we have included websites of international organizations such as the European Union.
Because of the overwhelming data volume, it has not been possible to carry out a manual editorial check on all of these documents. So, we logically cannot guarantee the quality of each and every translation. We are working on continually optimizing the quality of our usage examples by improving their relevance as well as the translations.
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Almosen geh Spende : Almosen. Would you like to add some words, phrases or translations? Submit a new entry. Compile a new entry. Sk 14,8 3 Seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple, he asked to receive alms. In giving alms , we offer something material, a sign of the greater gift that we can impart to others through the announcement and witness of Christ, in whose name is found true life. Let this time, then, be marked by a personal and community effort of attachment to Christ in order that we may be witnesses of His love.
His father was a pagan Roman senior officer in the Roman province of Upper Pannonia, present-day Hungary, and forced Martin to become a soldier as early as the age of fifteen. Legend has it that on a cold, dark night Martin encountered a half-naked beggar who asked him for alms. However, Martin had no money on him and, as he wanted to protect the beggar against the cold, he cleaved his coat into two halves and gave one to the beggar. The hospital in Pistoia is the building that stands out most in the portion of the city in Via Matteotti.
Its unique name "Hospital of strain," derives from the fact that there was a large tree trunk from which the collected alms. Khadra : My plan would have been to take a stand against this madness, to teach people to work again, to get to a position in which the oil wealth makes builders of us and not rentiers and profiteers, for us to create jobs and wealth rather than receive alms. Unfortunately, the Algerian regime is pulling all the strings, and it refuses to cede one iota to anyone who's not on its side.
From my 12 years of working here I have learned how much energy it takes to not just give alms but to change people's lives permanently. Es soll im Verborgenen gegeben werden. Concretely, he said : It is more sustainable to employ less productive tenants than to give alms to the poor later on.